Johnsons War/Johnsons Great Society: The Guns and Butter Trap

Johnson's War/Johnson's Great Society: The Guns and Butter Trap [Jeffrey W. Helsing] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Helsing provides .
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More important, the author highlights the manner in which Johnson misled his own domestic and economic policy advisers to avoid a messy debate over the conflict in Southeast Asia while much of his ambitious Great Society program was still awaiting approval on Capitol Hill. The results of these deceptions include LBJ's later devastating credibility problem and the beginning of the end of the more than four-year economic boom in the US.

Although the outlines of the story are well known, Helsing's is the first monograph devoted explicitly to this important subject. It is a cautionary tale about the dangers of operating a secret diplomatic and military program in a democracy. Recommended for upper-division undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and researchers. Small; Wayne State University. Thank you for using the catalog. Lyndon Baines , Vietnam War, -- United States. United States -- Politics and government -- Summary Helsing provides a unique perspective on the escalation of the Vietnam War.

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Johnson's War/Johnson's Great Society: The Guns and Butter Trap - Jeffrey W. Helsing - Google Книги

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By signing up you enjoy subscriber-only access to the latest news, personalized book picks and special offers, delivered right to your inbox. Importantly, funding for transportation and the environment has continued, and funds earmarked for the arts, humanities, and public broadcasting have survived in the face of many attempts to eliminate them.

All of the civil rights laws, amended many times and continually challenged in the courts, remain on the books, but the Supreme Court, much altered with conservative justices appointed by Republican administrations, has weakened attempts at affirmative action in education, housing, and the workplace. In the face of the recent Gratz and Grutter decisions, the reconstituted court may now have an anti-affirmative action majority.

The election, however, may have demonstrated that cold war liberalism is not dead. Senator John Edwards, campaigning for the Democratic nomination on a platform of old Great Society ideas and promises, did well in the primaries. Well into the first decade of the twenty-first century, it is apparent that the ideals first proposed by President Kennedy, expanded by President Johnson, and enacted into law by a Congress bent on building a better America, are not forgotten. Kennedy , in his speech before the Democratic National Convention, summed it up best.

The senator from Massachusetts, in a patent reference to the liberalism of the New Frontier , poignantly expressed the sense of the Great Society for future generations when he exclaimed: Social Justice or Reverse Discrimination?


In Defense of Affirmative Action. Cohen, Carl, and James P. Affirmative Action and Racial Preference. The Guns and Butter Trap. Johnson School of Public Affairs. Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Johnson, — The Best of Intentions: Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Retrieved September 20, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.

Kennedy — was assassinated on November 22, But despite the tragedy, the country was experiencing an era of unprecedented economic health. President Kennedy had already proposed a series of government-funded programs aimed at spreading U. Johnson — assumed the presidency, he pushed to make many of Kennedy's proposals into law.

In a speech at the University of Michigan in May , Johnson said he hoped these programs would help create a " Great Society. Great Society programs, as they came to be known, assisted millions, but they were very controversial. In the short run, funding for these costly programs decreased, as the United States spent more and more fighting the Vietnam War — In the long run, many critics have charged that these initiatives resulted in high taxes, "big government," and that they actually hurt the very people they were designed to help.

Nonetheless, Great Society programs such as Medicare, which assists the elderly with medical expenses, remained popular and in the late s they were still a crucial part of many Americans' lives. Great Society programs were not the first large scale effort by the federal government to aid the disadvantaged. Roosevelt — promised a " New Deal " to all Americans when he was elected.

This " New Deal " was a long list of employment, income-assistance, and labor legislation, and it also had many critics. But President Roosevelt's New Deal came at a time of mass poverty, when the United States and the world were living through the tough economic times of the Great Depression — Having emerged from World War II — as the world's most powerful nation, the United States experienced astounding economic growth in the s and s. Many Americans who barely had enough to eat during the Depression, now found themselves living in brand new homes and driving automobiles.

President Kennedy believed this national wealth could be used to uplift those who had not yet shared in the good economic times. Particularly disadvantaged were African Americans , who faced legal segregation in the South and poverty and discrimination in the North. In the tradition of Roosevelt's New Deal, Kennedy proposed employment, education, and health care legislation.

Johnson's War/Johnson's Great Society: The Guns and Butter Trap

A masterful politician, Johnson may have lacked Kennedy's public grace, but he made up for it with political savvy. A former leader in the Senate, Johnson would need these skills to enact his ambitious programs which faced serious opposition in Congress. During the summer of Johnson challenged Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act , the foundation for what came to be known as the "war on poverty.

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Johnson said enacting these bills would be a fitting tribute to Kennedy. Johnson's initiatives seemed to be popular with voters. He won the election in a landslide. Capitalizing on what appeared to be a mandate from the American people, Johnson quickly proposed a wide range of programs for mass transportation, food stamps, immigration, and legal services for the poor.

Bills aiding elementary, secondary, and higher education were also passed.

The Great Society

Medicaid and Medicare were established to assist the poor and elderly, respectively, with medical treatment. Other initiatives created the Department of Housing and Urban Development, aimed at improving housing conditions, particularly in crowded cities, and Project Head Start , which aided poor children in their earliest years of education. The National Endowment for the Humanities and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting were created in an effort to expand access to culture.

These programs cost billions of dollars but Johnson presented them not only as moral and just but also as a way to further expand the U. Johnson's party, the Democrats , won big again in the elections. However, forces were already converging, which would make it difficult to carry out Great Society programs. Across the country cities were exploding with demonstrations and even riots.

Some wondered why problems seemed to be getting worse, just as billions of dollars had been committed to solving them. A more daunting problem lay halfway around the world. The War in Vietnam claimed an increasing amount of Johnson's attention. And the war became just as controversial as Johnson's War on Poverty. It was also becoming more and more expensive as troops and supplies poured into the region to combat the " Viet Cong " guerilla fighters and the North Vietnamese Army.

Johnson was pressured to hike taxes to cover the soaring costs of the war and his Great Society measures. Johnson's need for a tax increase gave political opponents leverage to demand domestic spending cuts. By Johnson's top economic and political priority was the increasingly unpopular war in Vietnam. This commitment ultimately led to him refusing to seek reelection as the Democratic presidential candidate. That year also saw California Governor Ronald Reagan — fail in his bid to become the Republican presidential candidate. But twelve years later, when the nation's economy was stagnant, Reagan was elected president on a platform that identified many of Johnson's programs as the source of the nation's economic woes.

Republicans like Reagan claimed the burden of Great Society initiatives on taxpayers had become too great while poverty only seemed to worsen. Republicans stepped up their attack into the s and in they won majorities in both houses of Congress. They continued to criticize federal spending on programs such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children, more commonly called welfare, which were greatly expanded under the Great Society.

Some Democrats said the attacks unfairly singled out society's most vulnerable citizens. Republicans argued that such social programs lead to dependency, which creates problems for both the beneficiary and the nation. Even President Bill Clinton — , a Democrat , declared an "end to welfare as we know it. Despite the criticism a diverse selection of Great Society programs, from Medicare to public television, remain politically popular. The ultimate legacy of the Great Society will surely be debated for decades to come.

Medicaid, Medicare, Franklin D. Its Legacy in the s. Oxford University Press, Fraser, Steve, and Gary Gerstle. Princeton University Press, University of Chicago Press, Introduction to The Great Society …. Social Security Amendments of ….. The Establishment of the Robert T.

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Executive Order …. Head Start Act… U. Johnson — served as the thirty-sixth president of the United States from to His effort to build a Great Society was significantly hampered by escalating American involvement in the Vietnam War. Johnson envisioned a great society that would unify the United States and inspire the world. Heavily influenced by his admiration for Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal , Johnson's Great Society was an ambitious domestic program that aimed to improve the quality of American life by expanding the welfare state.

The sheer amount and scope of Great Society legislation was breathtaking. Johnson, a man with a wealth of political experience and a former majority leader in the U.